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Substrate selection by the archiannelid Protodrilus rubropharyngeus
Gray, J.S. (1967). Substrate selection by the archiannelid Protodrilus rubropharyngeus. Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 15(1-4): 253-269.
In: Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen. Biologische Anstalt Helgoland: Hamburg. ISSN 0017-9957, more
Also appears in:
Kinne, O.; Aurich, H. (Ed.) (1967). Vorträge und Diskussionen. Erstes Europäisches Symposion über Meeresbiologie = Papers and discussions. First European Symposium on Marine Biology = Rapports et discussions. Premier symposium européen sur biologie marine. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 15(1-4). Biologische Anstalt Helgoland: Hamburg. 669 pp., more
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    1.Protodrilus rubropharyngeus Jägersten, a marine interstitial archiannelid, was found to move to the surface layers of sand in response to a negative geotaxis and preference for areas of highest oxygen tension.2. Strong light and vibrations tend to keep the animal just below the sand surface except on calm days.3. The adults were found to be highly gregarious.4. Both adults and larvae showed a preference for the 0.5 to 1 mm grade of sand.5. The localisation of high numbers of animals in narrow areas of a uniform beach seems to be related to the presence of a localized surface film on the sand grain surfaces. This film is produced by certain favourable species of bacteria, and together with a chemical produced by the animals themselves, attracts other members of the species to this sand.

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