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First European record of the invasive barnacle Balanus glandula Darwin, 1854
Kerckhof, F.; De Mesel, I.; Degraer, S. (2018). First European record of the invasive barnacle Balanus glandula Darwin, 1854. Bioinvasions Records 7(1): 21-31.
In: Bioinvasions Records. Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre (REABIC): Helsinki. ISSN 2242-1300; e-ISSN 2242-1300, more
Peer reviewed article  

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    Invasive species

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    During recent surveys of hard substrata biofouling communities in Belgian marine waters we discovered specimens of the invasive barnacle Balanus glandula. This species is new to the European marine fauna. The species was first encountered in July 2015 in a biofouling community on RV Belgica. In October 2016, the species proved to be common on navigational buoys in Belgian coastal waters and after a dedicated search we discovered the species on many groynes all along the Belgian coast and in the harbour of Zeebrugge. We identified the species both morphologically and genetically. We found two generations indicating that B. glandula had settled in 2015 (possibly the first year of its presence) and also in 2016. We provide identification characters to distinguish B. glandula from other, similar looking, Western European intertidal barnacles. The distribution of B. glandula was originally limited to the Pacific coast of North America. In the past half century B. glandula successfully invaded subsequently the coasts of Argentina, Japan and South Africa. Given its invasion history elsewhere, we forecast that B. glandula is on the brink of invading other European shores.

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