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Updated species sensitivity distribution evaluations for acute and chronic lead toxicity to saltwater aquatic life
Church, B.G.; Van Sprang, P.A.; Chowdhury, M.J.; DeForest, D.K. (2017). Updated species sensitivity distribution evaluations for acute and chronic lead toxicity to saltwater aquatic life. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 36(11): 2974-2980.
In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Setac Press: New York. ISSN 0730-7268; e-ISSN 1552-8618, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Lead (Pb); Saltwater toxicity; Ambient water quality criteria (AWQC);Median 5th percentile hazardous concentration (HC5-50); Predictedno-effect concentration (PNEC)

Authors  Top 
  • Church, B.G.
  • Van Sprang, P.A., more
  • Chowdhury, M.J.
  • DeForest, D.K.

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for lead (Pb) in salt water were developed in 1984. The acute and chronic criteria are 210 and 8.1g/L dissolved Pb, respectively. Because data were limited in 1984, the chronic criterion was derived using an acute-to-chronic ratio, but there are now sufficient toxicity data such that an acute-to-chronic ratio is no longer needed. Based on the data now available, the proposed updated acute and chronic salt water Pb AWQC (following USEPA methods) are 100 and 10 mu g/L, respectively. In the European Union, a chronic salt water predicted no-effect concentration based on the median 5th percentile hazardous concentration (HC5-50) was developed in 2008 for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals program, which forms the basis for deriving chronic environmental quality standards for Pb in European marine waters. The salt water HC5-50 previously derived for Pb was 6.1g/L, whereas the proposed, updated chronic salt water HC5-50 derived following European Union methods is 11.0 mu g/L. Thus, despite differences in derivation methodologies, the proposed AWQC and HC5-50 values are very consistent. Studies evaluating the effect of water quality factors on bioavailability and toxicity of Pb in salt water are limited; the effect of water quality on Pb toxicity in salt water should be considered in future studies.

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