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Single-particle analysis of aerosols at Cheju Island, Korea, using low-z electron probe X-ray microanalysis: a direct proof of nitrate formation from sea salts
Ro, C.-U.; Oh, K.-Y.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.P.; Lee, C.B.; Kim, K.-H.; Kang, C.H.; Osán, J.; De Hoog, J.; Worobiec, A.; Van Grieken, R. (2001). Single-particle analysis of aerosols at Cheju Island, Korea, using low-z electron probe X-ray microanalysis: a direct proof of nitrate formation from sea salts. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35(22): 4487-4494
In: Environmental Science and Technology. American Chemical Society: Easton. ISSN 0013-936X; e-ISSN 1520-5851, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 280415 [ OMA ]

    Air-water exchanges
    Aquatic sciences > Marine sciences > Earth sciences > Oceanography > Chemical oceanography
    Chemical compounds > Nitrogen compounds > Nitrates
    Chemistry > Atmospheric sciences > Atmospheric chemistry
    Colloids > Aerosols
    Ocean-atmosphere system
    Particulates > Atmospheric particulates > Salt particles > Salt nuclei
    Particulates > Suspended particulate matter
    Pollution > Air pollution
    Sampling > Air sampling
    Topographic features > Landforms > Islands > Oceanic islands
    Water > Sea water
    INW, Korea, Rep., Cheju I. [Marine Regions]

Authors  Top 
  • Ro, C.-U.
  • Oh, K.-Y.
  • Kim, H.
  • Kim, Y.P.
  • Lee, C.B.
  • Kim, K.-H.
  • Kang, C.H.
  • Osán, J.
  • De Hoog, J.
  • Worobiec, A., more
  • Van Grieken, R., more

    A recently developed electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA), called low-Z EPMA, employing an ultrathin window energy-dispersive X-ray detector, was applied to characterize aerosol particles collected at two sampling sites, namely, Kosan and 1100 Hill of Cheju Island, Korea, on a summer day in 1999. Since low-Z EPMA can provide quantitative information on the chemical composition of aerosol particles, the collected aerosol particles were classified and analyzed based on their chemical species. Many different particle types were identified, such as marine-originated, carbonaceous, soil-derived, and anthropogenic particles. Marine-originated particles, such as NaNO3- and Na2SO4- containing particles, are very frequently encountered in the two samples. In this study, it was directly proven that the observed nitrate particles were from sea salts. In addition, two types of nitrate particles from sea salts were observed, with and without Mg. The sodium nitrate particles without Mg were believed to be collected as crystalline form, either with the sodium nitrate particles being fractionally recrystallized within evaporating seawater drops or with recrystallized sodium chloride particles having reacted with gaseous nitrogen species in the air to form the crystalline sodium nitrate particles. The other seemed to be collected as seawater drops, where the atmospheric reaction had occurred in the droplets, and thus sodium as well as magnesium nitrates were observed. Carbonaceous particles are the most abundant in the samples at both sites. From this study, it was found that about three-quarters of the carbonaceous particles in the samples were biogenic, which partially explains a previously reported observation of a large concentration of organic carbon particles as compared to elemental carbon. Various soil-derived particles were also observed. In addition to aluminosilicate- and iron oxide-containing particles, which are ubiquitous components in soil-derived particles, CaCO3-, Al2O3- and Cr-containing particles were also frequently encountered.

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