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Genomic and metabolomic analyses of the marine fungus Emericellopsis cladophorae: insights into saltwater adaptability mechanisms and its biosynthetic potential
Gonçalves, M.F.M.; Hilário, S.; Van de Peer, Y.; Esteves, A.C.; Alves, A. (2022). Genomic and metabolomic analyses of the marine fungus Emericellopsis cladophorae: insights into saltwater adaptability mechanisms and its biosynthetic potential. Journal of Fungi 8(1): 31. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof8010031
In: Journal of Fungi. MDPI: Basel. ISSN 2309-608X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine/Coastal
Author keywords
    antimicrobial; anticancer; marine fungi; metabolites; whole genome sequencing

Authors  Top 
  • Gonçalves, M.F.M.
  • Hilário, S.
  • Van de Peer, Y., more
  • Esteves, A.C.
  • Alves, A.

Abstract
    The genus Emericellopsis is found in terrestrial, but mainly in marine, environments with a worldwide distribution. Although Emericellopsis has been recognized as an important source of bioactive compounds, the range of metabolites expressed by the species of this genus, as well as the genes involved in their production are still poorly known. Untargeted metabolomics, using UPLC- QToF–MS/MS, and genome sequencing (Illumina HiSeq) was performed to unlock E. cladophorae MUM 19.33 chemical diversity. The genome of E. cladophorae is 26.9 Mb and encodes 8572 genes. A large set of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), secreted proteins, transporters, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters were identified. Our analysis also revealed genomic signatures that may reflect a certain fungal adaptability to the marine environment, such as genes encoding for (1) the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway; (2) osmolytes’ biosynthetic processes; (3) ion transport systems, and (4) CAZymes classes allowing the utilization of marine polysaccharides. The fungal crude extract library constructed revealed a promising source of antifungal (e.g., 9,12,13-Trihydroxyoctadec-10-enoic acid, hymeglusin), antibacterial (e.g., NovobiocinA), anticancer (e.g., daunomycinone, isoreserpin, flavopiridol), and anti-inflammatory (e.g., 2’-O-Galloylhyperin) metabolites. We also detected unknown compounds with no structural match in the databases used. The metabolites’ profiles of E. cladophorae MUM 19.33 fermentations were salt dependent. The results of this study contribute to unravel aspects of the biology and ecology of this marine fungus. The genome and metabolome data are relevant for future biotechnological exploitation of the species.

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