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Cyanotoxins and food contamination in developing countries: review of their types, toxicity, analysis, occurrence and mitigation strategies
Abdallah, M.F.; Van Hassel, W.H.R.; Andjelkovic, M.; Wilmotte, A.; Rajkovic, A. (2021). Cyanotoxins and food contamination in developing countries: review of their types, toxicity, analysis, occurrence and mitigation strategies. Toxins 13(11): 786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110786
In: Toxins. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI): Basel. ISSN 2072-6651; e-ISSN 2072-6651, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine/Coastal
Author keywords
    cyanotoxins; microcystins; nodularins; cylindrospermopsin; food safety; developing countries; seafood; Africa; Asia; Latin America

Authors  Top 
  • Abdallah, M.F., more
  • Van Hassel, W.H.R., more
  • Andjelkovic, M., more

Abstract
    Cyanotoxins have gained global public interest due to their potential to bioaccumulate in food, which threatens human health. Bloom formation is usually enhanced under Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates which are the dominant climate types in developing countries. In this context, we present an up-to-date overview of cyanotoxins (types, toxic effects, analysis, occurrence, and mitigation) with a special focus on their contamination in (sea)food from all the developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as this has received less attention. A total of 65 publications have been found (from 2000 until October 2021) reporting the contamination by one or more cyanotoxins in seafood and edible plants (five papers). Only Brazil and China conducted more research on cyanotoxin contamination in food in comparison to other countries. The majority of research focused on the detection of microcystins using different analytical methods. The detected levels mostly surpassed the provisional tolerable daily intake limit set by the World Health Organization, indicating a real risk to the exposed population. Assessment of cyanotoxin contamination in foods from developing countries still requires further investigations by conducting more survey studies, especially the simultaneous detection of multiple categories of cyanotoxins in food.

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