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A comprehensive review on structural tsunami countermeasures
Oetjen, J.; Sundar, V.; Venkatachalam, S.; Reicherter, K.; Engel, M.; Schüttrumpf, H.; Sannasiraj, S.A. (2022). A comprehensive review on structural tsunami countermeasures. Nat. Hazards 113(3): 1419-1449. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11069-022-05367-y
In: Natural Hazards. Springer: Dordrecht; London; Boston. ISSN 0921-030X; e-ISSN 1573-0840, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Oetjen, J.
  • Sundar, V.
  • Venkatachalam, S.
  • Reicherter, K.
  • Engel, M., more
  • Schüttrumpf, H.
  • Sannasiraj, S.A.

    Tsunamis pose a substantial threat to coastal communities around the globe. To counter their effects, several hard and soft mitigation measures are applied, the choice of which essentially depends on regional expectations, historical experiences and economic capabilities. These countermeasures encompass hard measures to physically prevent tsunami impacts such as different types of seawalls or offshore breakwaters, as well as soft measures such as long-term tsunami hazard assessment, tsunami education, evacuation plans, early-warning systems or coastal afforestation. Whist hard countermeasures generally aim at reducing the inundation level and distance, soft countermeasures focus mainly on enhanced resilience and decreased vulnerability or nature-based wave impact mitigation. In this paper, the efficacy of hard countermeasures is evaluated through a comprehensive literature review. The recent large-scale tsunami events facilitate the assessment of performance characteristics of countermeasures and related damaging processes by in-situ observations. An overview and comparison of such damages and dependencies are given and new approaches for mitigating tsunami impacts are presented.

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