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Influence of irradiance and temperature on the virus MpoV-45T infecting the Arctic picophytoplankter micromonas polaris
Piedade, G.; Wesdorp, E.; Montenegro-Borbolla, E.; Maat, D.; Brussaard, C. (2018). Influence of irradiance and temperature on the virus MpoV-45T infecting the Arctic picophytoplankter micromonas polaris. Viruses 10(12): 676. https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120676
In: Viruses. MDPI: Basel. ISSN 1999-4915, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Arctic algal viruses; Light intensity; Light regime; Global Climate Change; Virus growth characteristics

Authors  Top 
  • Piedade, G.
  • Wesdorp, E.
  • Montenegro-Borbolla, E.

Abstract
    Arctic marine ecosystems are currently undergoing rapid changes in temperature and light availability. Picophytoplankton, such as Micromonas polaris, are predicted to benefit from such changes. However, little is known about how these environmental changes affect the viruses that exert a strong mortality pressure on these small but omnipresent algae. Here we report on one-step infection experiments, combined with measurements of host physiology and viability, with 2 strains of M. polaris and the virus MpoV-45T under 3 light intensities (5, 60 and 160 μmol quanta m−2 s−1), 2 light period regimes (16:8 and 24:0 h light:dark cycle) and 2 temperatures (3 and 7 °C). Our results show that low light intensity (16:8 h light:dark) delayed the decline in photosynthetic efficiency and cell lysis, while decreasing burst size by 46%. In contrast, continuous light (24:0 h light:dark) shortened the latent period by 5 h for all light intensities, and even increased the maximum virus production rate and burst size under low light (by 157 and 69%, respectively). Higher temperature (7 °C vs 3 °C) led to earlier cell lysis and increased burst size (by 19%), except for the low light conditions. These findings demonstrate the ecological importance of light in combination with temperature as a controlling factor for Arctic phytoplankton host and virus dynamics seasonally, even more so in the light of global warming.

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