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Uncertainties in the environmental risk assessment of metals
Janssen, C.R.; De Schamphelaere, K.; Heyerick, D.; Muyssen, B.T.A.; Lock, K.; Bossuyt, B.T.A.; Vangheluwe, M.L.; Van Sprang, P. (2000). Uncertainties in the environmental risk assessment of metals. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 6: 1003-1018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10807030091124257
In: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. Taylor & Francis: Amherst, MA. ISSN 1080-7039; e-ISSN 1549-7860, more
Peer reviewed article  

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    Aquatic organisms
    Biological phenomena > Adaptations > Acclimation
    Chemical elements > Metals > Heavy metals > Zinc
    Chemical elements > Metals > Transition elements > Heavy metals > Copper
    Diseases > Deficiency
    Properties > Biological properties > Toxicity
    Properties > Water properties > Physical properties > Water hardness

Authors  Top 
  • Janssen, C.R., more
  • De Schamphelaere, K., more
  • Heyerick, D.
  • Muyssen, B.T.A., more
  • Lock, K., more
  • Bossuyt, B.T.A., more
  • Vangheluwe, M.L., more
  • Van Sprang, P., more

    As life has evolved in the presence of metals, the assessment of the potential adverse effects of metals on ecosystems requires a different approach than those presently used for man-made organic substances. This article provides a brief review of applications and limitations of current techniques and presents, based on recent research results, suggestions for improving the scientific relevance and accuracy of environmental risk assessments of metals. The importance of the following factors responsible for major uncertainties in current environmental risk assessments of metals are discussed: factors affecting metal bioavailability and toxicity, the potential importance of deficiency effects (for essential metals), and held extrapolation of laboratory toxicity data. Possible (regulatory) consequences of inaccurately assessing the natural background concentrations of metals and acclimatization/adaptation potential of laboratory organisms and resident communities are illustrated using examples of recent research, hypothesis development, and a probabilistic environmental risk assessment.

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