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The role of seasonality in reproduction of multiannual delayed gametophytes of Saccharina latissima
Ebbing, A.P.J.; Pierik, R.; Fivash, G.S.; van de Loosdrecht, N.C.J.; Bouma, T.J.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Timmermans, K. (2021). The role of seasonality in reproduction of multiannual delayed gametophytes of Saccharina latissima. J. Phycol. 57(5): 1580-1589.
In: Journal of Phycology. Blackwell Science: New York. ISSN 0022-3646; e-ISSN 1529-8817, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus) C.E.Lane, C.Mayes, Druehl & G.W.Saunders, 2006 [WoRMS]
Author keywords
    Initial gametophyte density; Kelp; Life cycle control; Light intensity; Seasonal lag; Temperature; Vegetative growth

Authors  Top 
  • Ebbing, A.P.J., more
  • Pierik, R.
  • Fivash, G.S.
  • van de Loosdrecht, N.C.J.
  • Bouma, T.J., more
  • Kromkamp, J.C.
  • Timmermans, K., more


    Delayed gametophytes are able to grow vegetatively for prolonged periods of time. As such, they are potentially very valuable for kelp aquaculture given their great promise in opening up novel opportunities for kelp breeding and farming. However, large-scale application would require more in-depth understanding of how to control reproduction in delayed gametophytes. For newly formed gametophytes, many environmental factors for reproduction have been identified, with key drivers being light intensity, temperature, and the initial gametophyte density. However, the question of whether delayed gametophytes react similarly to these life cycle controls remains open for exploration. In this study, we performed a full factorial experiment on the influences of light intensity, temperature, and densityon the reproduction of multiannual delayed gametophytes of Saccharina latissima, during which the number of sporophytes formed were counted. We demonstrate that delayed gametophytes of S . latissima can reliably reproduce sexually after more than a year of vegetative growth, depending on the effects between light intensity andtemperature. Under higher light intensities (≥29 µmol photons · m -2 · s-1), optimal reproduction was observed at lower temperatures (10.2°C), while at lower light intensities (≤15 µmol photons · m-2 · s-1), optimal reproduction was observed at higher temperatures (≥12.6°C). Given the seasonal lag between solar radiation and sea surface temperature in natural systems, these conditions resemble those found during spring (i.e., increasing light intensity with low temperatures) and autumn (i.e., decreasing light intensity with higher temperatures). Seasonality that can be used as an aquaculture tool to better control the reproduction of delayed gametophytes.

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